The monograph has been written on the base of data obtained from samples and materials collected during the 19-th cruise of RV ''Akademik Vernadsky'' to the Northern and Equatorial Indian Ocean. Geological features of the region (stratigraphy, tectonic structure, lithology, distribution of ore-forming components in bottom sediments, petrography of igneous rocks, etc.) are under consideration. Regularities of trace element concentration in Fe-Mn nodules, nodule distribution in bottom sediments, and engineering-geological properties of sediments within the nodule fields have been studied. Much attention is paid to ocean crust rocks. The wide range of ore mineralization (magnetite, chromite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, pentlandite, and other minerals) has been ascertained.